Publications and on-line resources arising from the project and links and references for other relevant publications: 

Basic introduction to COPD

Good simple What is COPD video on  You-tube from European COPD Coalition.


Training resources

FRESH AIR publications 


 NCD Alliance:Implementation research, what’s this? The example of FRESH AIR for chronic lung disease, June 2017


All publications resulting from the FRESH AIR Horizon 2020 will be published using Open Access.  


Conference abstracts

ERS 2017


IPCRG 2017


Policy: WHO-GARD recognition

  • Khaltaev N. GARD, a new way to battle with chronic respiratory diseases, from disease oriented programmes to global partnership. J Thorac Dis 2017;9(11):4676-4689. doi: 10.21037/jtd.2017.11.91. Available:

Latest papers from our team

Studies from the original IPCRG FRESH AIR programme:

On-line resources

Useful papers

As the project progresses, you will be able to access an extensive bibliography of published articles, grey literature and useful websites prepared by the consortium.

Respiratory disease globally

Forum of International Respiratory Societies. The Global Impact of Respiratory Disease – Second Edition. Sheffield, European Respiratory Society, 2017. Available from:


North CM, Valeri L, Hunt PW, et al. Cooking fuel and respiratory symptoms among people living with HIV in rural Uganda. ERJ Open Research. 2017;3(2):00094-02016. doi:10.1183/23120541.00094-2016.


Townend J, Minelli C, Mortimer K, Obaseki DO, Al Ghobain M, Cherkaski H, et al. The association between chronic airflow obstruction and poverty in 12 sites of the multinational BOLD study. Eur Respir J [Internet]. 2017 Jun 1;49(6). Available from:

Early lung development and impact on the development of COPD


Alexander DA, Northcross A, Karrison T, Morhasson-Bello O, Wilson N, Atalabi OM, et al. Pregnancy outcomes and ethanol cook stove intervention: A randomized-controlled trial in Ibadan, Nigeria. Environ Int [Internet]. Elsevier; 2018;111(July 2017):152–63. Available from:

UNICEF.  Clear the Air for Children. The impact of air pollution on children.  October 2017. Available from

Sly PD. From the Cradle to the Grave : The Early-Life Origins of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2016;193:1–3

Martinez FD. Early-Life Origins of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. N Engl J Med [Internet]. 2016;375(9):871–8. Available from:

Bush A, Bolton CE. Longer Term Sequelae of Prematurity: The Adolescent and Young Adult. In: Hibbs AM, S. MM, editors. Respiratory Outcomes in Preterm Infants: From Infancy through Adulthood [Internet]. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2017. p. 99–118. Available from: .  (with extensive open source reference list)

Gray D, Willemse L, Visagie A, Czövek D, Nduru P, Vanker A, et al. Determinants of early-life lung function in African infants. 2017;445–50.

McGeachie MJ, Yates KP, Zhou X, et al. Patterns of growth and decline in lung function in persistent childhood asthma. N Engl J Med 2016; 374: 1842–1852. Available from: full/10.1056/NEJMoa1513737 

Lange P, Celli B, Agustí A, Boje Jensen G, Divo M, Faner R, et al. Lung-Function Trajectories Leading to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. N Engl J Med [Internet]. Massachusetts Medical Society; 2015 Jul 8;373(2):111–22. Available from:

Barker P. Relation of birth weight and childhood respiratory infection to adult. 1991;303:671–5. Available from:

Lawlor DA, Ebrahim S, Smith GD. Association of birth weight with adult lung function: findings from the British Women’s Heart and Health Study and a meta-analysis. 2005;i:851–8. Available from:

Kotecha SJ, Edwards MO, Watkins WJ, Henderson AJ, Paranjothy S, Dunstan FD, et al. Effect of preterm birth on later FEV1: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Thorax [Internet]. 2013 Aug 1;68(8):760–6. Available from:

Svanes C, Sunyer J, Plana E, Dharmage S, Heinrich J, Jarvis D, et al. Early life origins of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. 2010;14–20. Available from:

Tai A, Tran H, Roberts M, Clark N, Wilson J, Robertson CF. The association between childhood asthma and adult chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Thorax [Internet]. 2014 Mar 19; Available from:

Task-shifting and task-sharing

Maher D, Cometto G. Research on community-based health workers is needed to achieve the sustainable development goals. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2016;94:786. doi:

Joshi R, Alim M, Kengne AP, Jan S, Maulik PK, Peiris D, et al. Task shifting for non-communicable disease management in low and middle income countries - A systematic review. PLoS One. 2014;9(8).

Praveen D, Patel A, McMahon S, Prabhakaran D, Clifford GD, Maulik PK, et al. A multifaceted strategy using mobile technology to assist rural primary healthcare doctors and frontline health workers in cardiovascular disease risk management: protocol for the SMARTHealth India cluster randomised controlled trial. Implement Sci [Internet]. 2013;8:137. Available from:

PACK programme:

Fairall L, Bateman E, Cornick R, et al. Innovating to improve primary care in less developed countries: towards a global model. BMJ Innov. 2015;1:196-203.

Fairall LR, Folb N, Timmerman V, Lombard C, Steyn K, Bachmann MO, Bateman ED, Lund C, Cornick R, Faris G, Gaziano T, Georgeu-Pepper D, Zwarenstein M, Levitt NS. Educational outreach with an integrated clinical tool for nurse-led non-communicable chronic disease management in primary care in South Africa: a pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial. PLOS Med 2016; 13(11):e1002178. doi:10:1371/journal.pmed.1002178

Bateman ED. Integrated clinical management tools for respiratory diseases: lessons from PAL in sub-Saharan Africa. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2016 Apr;20(4):429. doi: 10.5588/ijtld.16.0116

Petersen I, Fairall L, Egbe CO, Bhana A. Optimizing Lay Counsellor Services for Chronic Care in South Africa: A Qualitative Systematic Review. Patient Education and Counselling. Patient Educ Couns. 2014 May;95(2):201-10

Barton GR, Fairall L, Bachmann MO, Uebel K, Timmerman V, Lombard C, Zwarenstein M. Cost-effectiveness of nurse-led versus doctor-led antiretroviral treatment in South Africa: pragmatic cluster randomised trial. 2013;18(6):769-77. doi: 10.1111/tmi.12093.

Fairall LR, Bachmann MO, Lombard C, et al. Task shifting of antiretroviral treatment from doctors to primary-care nurses in South Africa (STRETCH): a pragmatic, parallel, cluster-randomised trial. Lancet. 2012;380:889–98.

 Georgeu D, Colvin CJ, Lewin S, et al. Implementing nurse-initiated and managed antiretroviral treatment (NIMART) in South Africa: qualitative process evaluation of the STRETCH trial. Implement Sci. 2012; 7:66.

 Mash B, Fairall LR, Adejayan O, Ikpefan O, Kumari J, Mathee S, Okun R, Yogolelo W. A morbidity survey of South African primary care. Plos Medicine. PLoS One. 2012;7(3):e32358.

Zwarenstein M, Fairall LR, Lombard C, et al. Outreach education for integration of HIV/AIDS care, antiretroviral treatment, and tuberculosis care in primary care clinics in South Africa: PALSA PLUS pragmatic cluster randomised trial. BMJ. 2011;342:d2022.

Additional PACK references

Contact us

Project management:
Rianne van der Kleij

Pollution and health

  • Alexander DA, Northcross A, Karrison T, Morhasson-Bello O, Wilson N, Atalabi OM, et al. Pregnancy outcomes and ethanol cook stove intervention: A randomized-controlled trial in Ibadan, Nigeria. Environ Int [Internet]. Elsevier; 2018;111(July 2017):152–63. Available from:
  • Sinharay R, Gong J, Barratt B, Ohman-Strickland P, Ernst S, Kelly F, et al. Respiratory and cardiovascular responses to walking down a traffic-polluted road compared with walking in a traffic-free area in participants aged 60 years and older with chronic lung or heart disease and age-matched healthy controls: a randomised, crossover study. Lancet [Internet]. Elsevier; 2018 Jan 8; Available from:

Recommended implementation Science papers

  • Pinnock H, Sheikh A. Standards for reporting implementation studies ( StaRI ): enhancing reporting to improve care. npj Prim Care Respir Med [Internet]. Springer US; 2017;(May):1–2. Available from:
  • Pinnock H, Barwick M, Carpenter CR, Eldridge S, Grandes G, Griffiths CJ et al. Standards for Reporting Implementation Studies (StaRI) Statement BMJ 2017; 356 :i6795. Available at:
  • Pinnock H, Barwick M, Carpenter CR for the StaRI Group, et al Standards for Reporting Implementation Studies (StaRI): explanation and elaboration document BMJ Open 2017;7:e013318. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2016-013318. Available at:
  • Moore GF, Audrey S, Barker M, Bond L, Bonell C, Hardeman W, et al. Process evaluation of complex interventions : Medical Research Council guidance. :1–7. Available from:
  • Bauer, MS,  Damschroder L,  Hagedorn H,  Smith J, Kilbourne AM. 2015. An introduction to implementation science for the non-specialist. BMC Psychology 3 (1): 32. doi:10.1186/s40359-015-0089-9.
  • Hawe P. Lessons from Complex Interventions to Improve Health. Annu Rev Public Health [Internet]. Annual Reviews; 2015 Mar 18;36(1):307–23. Available from:
  • Hawe P, Shiell A, Riley T. Theorising Interventions as Events in Systems. Am J Community Psychol [Internet]. 2009;43(3):267–76. Available from:
  • Tomoaia-cotisel A, Scammon DL, Waitzman NJ, Cronholm PF, Driscoll DL, Solberg LI, et al. Context Matters : The Experience. Ann Fam Med. 2013;11(Supp 1):115–23.

  • Hales S, Lesher-trevino A, Ford N, Maher D, Tran N. Reporting guidelines for implementation and operational research. Bull World Heal Organ. 2016;94(November 2015):58–64.

Evidence-based medicine resources

Workforce resources

WHO/Unicef Join Statement on Integrated Community Case Management (iCCM)

Community Health Worker (CHW) Central  including new CHW reference guide updated 2017

PACK programmes developed by the Knowledge Translation Unit, South Africa.

Research databases

The University of Leeds, UK has built a list of databases and websites from around the world where randomised controlled trials have been found. Link:  
It lists clinical trials and research study websites and registries, international databases, regional and national databases. It indicates which ones are freely available and those containing open access to free full text articles.

It has not been checked since 2016.

Research methods

Global Health Trials "This web-based facility has been developed by a collaboration between many research organisations (listed below) that work in the field of global health.  It is open access and free. The ethos of this initiative is that those working on trials in resource limited setting can access each other; whatever their role and whatever disease they work on. Researchers can then work together to share guidance, tools and resources in order to improve trials and make them easier to conduct, thereby helping address questions around diseases of poverty. This site also provides guidance material, standard documents and training resources."

Participatory Ethnographic Evaluation and Research (PEER)   "It is an innovative approach to qualitative research. It was developed by Options experts, in collaboration with Swansea University. Members of a community (PEER researchers) are trained to carry out in-depth conversational interviews with friends in their social networks. By working with established relationships of trust between friends, PEER generates rich insights into how people view their world, and how they make decisions on key issues. The PEER process enables programmes to engage communities in discussions, and ensures that the views of marginalised and disadvantaged groups can be heard.

PEER is designed to be rapid, easy to replicate, and useful in a wide variety of different settings. Over the last ten years, in countries across Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean, and in the UK".

Publications from GACD - the FRESH AIR funder